PM-JS Integrations

Integration with webpack projects (advanced)

The ES6 source can also be used directly with webpack projects. Please refer to the Babel transpilation settings in .babelrc and the webpack configuration in webpack.config.js to see what may be involved.

Setting up an Ethereum JSON RPC

After setting up the pm-js library, you will still need a connection to an Ethereum JSON RPC provider. Without this connection, the following error occurs when trying to use the API to perform actions with the smart contracts:

Error: Invalid JSON RPC response: ""

pm-js refers to Truffle contract build artifacts found in node_modules/@gnosis.pm/pm-contracts/build/contracts/, which contain a registry of where key contracts are deployed given a network ID. By default Gnosis contract suite is already deployed on the Ropsten, Kovan, and Rinkeby testnets.

Ganache-cli and private chain providers

Ganache-cli is a JSON RPC provider which is designed to ease Ethereum dapp development. It can be used in tandem with pm-js as well, but its use requires some setup. Since Ganache-cli randomly generates a network ID and begins the Ethereum VM in a blank state, the contract suite would need to be deployed, and the deployed contract addresses recorded in the build artifacts before use with Ganache-cli. This can be done by running the migration script in the core contracts package directory.

(cd node_modules/\@gnosis.pm/pm-contracts/ && truffle migrate)

This will deploy the contracts onto the chain and will record the deployed addresses in the contract build artifacts. This will make the API available to pm-js applications which use the transpiled modules in dist (typically Node.js apps), as these modules refer directly to the build artifacts in the @gnosis.pm/pm-contracts package. However, for browser applications which use the standalone library file gnosis-pm[.min].js, that file has to be rebuilt to incorporate the new deployment addresses info.

MetaMask

MetaMask is a Chrome browser plugin which injects an instrumented instance of Web3.js into the page. It comes preloaded with connections to the Ethereum mainnet as well as the Ropsten, Kovan, and Rinkeby testnets through Infura. pm-js works out-of-the-box with MetaMask configured to connect to these testnets. Make sure your web page is being served over HTTP/HTTPS and uses the standalone library file.

Note about Promises

Because of the library’s dependence on remote service providers and the necessity to wait for transactions to complete on the blockchain, the majority of the methods in the API are asynchronous and return thenables in the form of Promises.

Truffle contract abstractions

pm-js also relies on Truffle contract abstractions. In fact, much of the underlying core contract functionality can be accessed in pm-js as one of these abstractions. Since the Truffle contract wrapper has to perform asynchronous actions such as wait on the result of a remote request to an Ethereum RPC node, it also uses thenables. For example, here is how to use the on-chain Gnosis Math library exposed at Gnosis.contracts to print the approximate natural log of a number:

const ONE = Math.pow(2, 64)
Gnosis.create()
    .then(gnosis => gnosis.contracts.Math.deployed())
    .then(math => math.ln(3 * ONE))
    .then(result => console.log('Math.ln(3) =', result.valueOf() / ONE))

Note about async and await

Although it is not strictly necessary, usage of async/await syntax is encouraged for simplifying the use of thenable programming, especially in complex flow scenarios. To increase the readability of code examples from this point forward, this guide will assume async/await is available and snippets execute in the context of an async function. With those assumptions, the previous example can be expressed in an async context like so:

const ONE = Math.pow(2, 64)
const gnosis = await Gnosis.create()
const math = await gnosis.contracts.Math.deployed()
console.log('Math.ln(3) =', (await math.ln(3 * ONE)).valueOf() / ONE)

Wrapping common operations

pm-js also exposes a number of convenience methods wrapping contract operations such as Gnosis.createCentralizedOracle and Gnosis.createScalarEvent.

Web3 options

The methods on the API can be provided with from, to, value, gas, and gasPrice options which get passed down to the web3.js layer. For example:

await gnosis.createCentralizedOracle({
    ipfsHash: 'Qm...',
    gasPrice: 20e9, // 20 GWei
})

Gas estimations

Many of the methods on the gnosis API also have an asynchronous estimateGas property which you can use, while allowing you to specify the gas estimation source. For example:

// using the estimateGas RPC
await gnosis.createCentralizedOracle.estimateGas(ipfsHash, { using: 'rpc' }))

// using stats derived from pm-contracts
await gnosis.createCentralizedOracle.estimateGas({ using: 'stats' }))

The gas stats derived from pm-contracts and used by the estimateGas functions when using stats are also added to the contract abstractions in the following property:

// examples of objects with gas stats for each function derived from pm-contracts test suite
gnosis.contracts.CentralizedOracle.gasStats
gnosis.contracts.ScalarEvent.gasStats

(Advanced) Notes for developers who use web3

If you would like to continue using web3 directly, one option is to skip this repo and use the core contracts directly. The NPM package @gnosis.pm/pm-contracts contains Truffle build artifacts as build/contracts/*.json, and those in turn contain contract ABIs, as well as existing deployment locations for various networks. The usage at this level looks something like this:

const Web3 = require('web3')
const CategoricalEventArtifact = require('@gnosis.pm/pm-contracts/build/contracts/CategoricalEvent.json')

const web3 = new Web3(/* whatever your web3 setup is here... */)

const eventWeb3Contract = web3.eth.contract(CategoricalEventArtifact.abi, '0x0bf128753dB586f742eaAda502301ea86a7561e6')

Truffle build artifacts are compatible with truffle-contract, which wraps web3.eth.contract functionality and provides additional features. If you’d like to take advantage of these features without pm-js, you may use truffle-contract in the following way:

const Web3 = require('web3')
const contract = require('truffle-contract')

// unlike the last setup, we don't need web3, just 
const provider = new Web3.providers.HttpProvider('https://ropsten.infura.io') // or whatever provider you'd like

const CategoricalEventArtifact = require('@gnosis.pm/pm-contracts/build/contracts/CategoricalEvent.json')
const CategoricalEvent = contract(CategoricalEventArtifact) // pass in the artifact directly here instead
const CategoricalEvent.setProvider(provider)

// this is asynchronous because this is how truffle-contract recommends you use .at
// since in the asynchronous version, truffle-contract will actually check to make sure that
// the bytecode at the address matches the bytecode specified in the artifact
const eventTruffleContract = await CategoricalEvent.at('0x0bf128753dB586f742eaAda502301ea86a7561e6')

With pm-js, you may accomplish the above with:

const gnosis = await Gnosis.create({ ethereum: web3.currentProvider })
const event = await gnosis.contracts.CategoricalEvent.at('0x0bf128753dB586f742eaAda502301ea86a7561e6')
// and then for example
console.log(await event.isOutcomeSet())